COGNOLIN 500 Tablets (Citicoline)

Table of Content

For the use of a Registered Medical Practitioner only or a hospital or laboratory only

Qualitative and Quantitative Composition

Each film-coated tablet contains:

Citicoline Sodium equivalent to

Citicoline ...................... 500 mg

Excipients .................... q.s.

Colour: Titanium Dioxide, IP

Dosage Form(S) and Strength(S)

Film-coated tablet

COGNOLIN – 500 mg Citicoline

Clinical Particulars

Therapeutic Indications

For the treatment of patients with serious cerebral injuries of vascular traumatic nature with or without loss of consciousness and for treatment of degenerative changes and chronic cerebral vascular injuries in senile dementia.

Posology and Method of Administration

Dosage should be individualized. The usually recommended dose of COGNOLIN Tablet is 500–1,000 mg daily. 

Take this medicine in the dose and duration as advised by your doctor. Swallow it as a whole. Do not chew, crush or break it. COGNOLIN tablet may be taken with or without food, but it is better to take it at a fixed time.

Contraindications

Must not be administered to patients with hypertonic of the parasympathetic and hypersensitivity to citicoline or any other component of the formulation.

Special Warnings and Precautions for Use

Must not be administered in conjunction, with medications containing centrophenoxine. In case of persistent intracranial haemorrhage, it is recommended not to exceed the dose of 1000 mg daily.

Cholines are generally regarded as safe and appear to be well-tolerated. High intake of cholines may cause low blood pressure, steatorrhea (undigested fat in stool), nausea, vomiting, salivation, diarrhoea, constipation, anorexia, dizziness (vertigo), sweating, insomnia and headache. Cholines can possibly trigger existing epilepsy.

Dosages at the upper limit (UL) intake levels are contraindicated for person suffering from trimethylaminuria, Parkinson's disease, or kidney or liver disease. Skin rash has been reported. A cold and cough were noted in patients taking citicoline in a trial. Choline should be used cautiously by people with kidney or liver disorders. Agitation, paranoia and severe depression have been reported. Use cautiously in patients with a history of depression. Because choline is a product of the breakdown of succinylcholine, it may produce similar side effects as the drug, like respiratory depression. A "fishy" odour has been associated with choline. Sweating and stunted growth may occur.

Do not consume alcohol while taking citicoline. Make sure doctor is aware of upcoming surgeries that may have scheduled; or will be scheduling while taking this medication.

Drug Interactions

Levodopa

Citicoline may enhance the effects of levodopa. The exact mechanism is unknown, but animal models suggest that citicoline may increase dopamine levels in the brain and/or improve dopaminergic cell survival. In patients with Parkinson's disease, a few studies have demonstrated levodopa-saving effects, whereby the addition of citicoline (500 to 1200 mg/day) allowed for lower dosages of levodopa to be used with stable or improved therapeutic efficacy and reduced side effects in some patients. However, data are limited.

Coadministration with meclofenoxate

Citicoline must not be administered in conjunction with medication containing meclofenoxate (also known as Clophenoxate).

Use in Special Population

Patients with Renal Impairment

Adjustment of the dose is recommended in elderly patients with compromised renal function. For long-term treatment in the elderly, regular evaluation of the creatinine clearance is required to allow dosage adaptation if needed. The daily dose must be individualized according to renal function.

Patients with Hepatic Impairment

There are no data concerning the effects of liver insufficiency on the safety profile and pharmacokinetics of citicoline.

Pregnant Women

There are no adequate and well controlled studies of citicoline during pregnancy and lactation. Citicoline should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the foetus.

Lactating Women

There are no adequate and well controlled studies of citicoline during pregnancy and lactation. Caution should be exercised during breastfeeding because it is not known whether citicoline is excreted in human breast milk.

Paediatric Patients

The experience in children is limited; therefore, it may only be administered when the expected therapeutically benefit is higher than any possible risk.

Geriatric Patients

No dosage adjustment is required in this patient population and the usually recommended adult dose can be administered. However, adjustment of the dose is recommended in elderly patients with compromised renal function.

Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines

Patient are advised not to operate heavy machinery or automobiles until the full effect of citicoline is known.

Undesirable Effects

A study administered citicoline or placebo to 12 healthy volunteers in two oral regimens repeated at short-term intervals (600 mg/day and 1g/day), every day for 5 days. The only adverse effects that appeared were self-limiting headaches in four and five subjects with high and low doses, respectively and in one subject who was given placebo. The results of haematological and clinical analyses did not show any abnormality associated to citicoline administration. No clinically significant ECG and EEG abnormalities were registered. Empirical neurological tests, tendon reflexes, blood pressure and heart rate were not affected by any dose of the drug or placebo.

In addition to an excellent tolerability in healthy individuals, as demonstrated in the above study, all of the authors of clinical trials using citicoline that have been reviewed in this present article, agree in rating the safety of this drug as excellent without serious side effects being reported. In some cases, the appearance of digestive intolerance has been

reported and occasional excitability or restlessness in the first days of treatment. For instance, a study of the efficacy and safety of citicoline in 2,817 patients of all ages, with a predominance of patients between 60 and 80 years, who had different neurological processes, mostly cognitive disorders of diverse origin. The duration of citicoline Treatment ranged from 15 to 60 days and the mean dose administered was 600 mg/day orally. Only 5.01% of the patients had collateral effects associated with citicoline treatment, most often digestive intolerance (3.6%). In no case was it necessary to interrupt treatment for side effects attributable to citicoline use.

In the pooled analysis of citicoline in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, in the safety analysis, there were few adverse events that were reported in more than the 5 %. These adverse events are listed in Table 1.

In the South Korean drug surveillance study, the safety of the product was considered as excellent, with only 37 side effects in 31 cases among the 4191 patients treated, that is a rate of side effects of 0.73%. Also, in the Cochrane Library review, it was demonstrated a lower rate on the incidence of adverse events related with citicoline in comparison with placebo.

Table 1: Safety analysis in the pooling data analysis of acute ischaemic stroke patients treated with citicoline. The table shows adverse events that were reported in more than 5% of cases

 

Placebo

Citicoline

 

n

%

n

%

Adverse events with incidence > 5% in the citicoline group

Anxiety

58

9.95

108

13.69

Leg oedema

38

6.52

77

9.76

Adverse events with incidence > 5%

Accidental injury

86

14.75

135

17.11

Agitation

78

13.38

113

14.32

Constipation

228

39.11

286

36.25

Coughing

81

13.89

105

13.31

Diarrhoea

81

13.89

117

14.83

Dizziness

47

7.89

72

9.13

ECG abnormality

57

9.78

74

9.38

Fever

182

31.22

241

30.54

Auricular fibrillation

65

11.15

92

11.66

Headache

186

31.90

261

33.08

Haematuria

53

9.09

91

11.53

Hypertension

88

15.09

131

16.60

Hypokalaemia

71

12.18

119

15.08

Hypotension

55

9.43

90

11.41

Urinary tract infection

235

40.31

298

37.77

Insomnia

103

17.67

145

18.38

Joint Pain

48

8.23

78

9.89

Nausea

111

19.04

157

19.90

Pain

180

30.87

227

28.77

Back Pain

45

7.72

74

9.38

Chest Pain

55

9.43

82

10.39

Rash

79

13.55

112

14.20

Restlessness

49

8.40

74

9.38

Shoulder pain

75

12.86

105

13.31

Vomiting

89

15.27

111

14.07

Adverse events with incidence > 5% in the placebo group

Depression

160

27.44

178

22.56

Falling down

109

18.70

99

12.55

Urinary incontinence

82

14.07

83

10.52

In conclusion, the tolerability of citicoline is excellent and the side effects attributable to this drug are infrequent. In any case, side effects are never severe and consist, mainly, in gastrointestinal discomfort and restlessness.

Reporting of Side-effects

If you experience any side-effects write to drugsafety@cipla.com. You can also report side effects directly via the national pharmacovigilance program of India by calling on 1800 180 3024 or you can report to Cipla Ltd on 18002677779. By reporting side-effects, you can help provide more information on the safety of this product.

Overdose

Citicoline exhibits very low toxicity profile in humans. In a short term, placebo controlled, crossover study, 12 healthy adults took citicoline at daily doses of 600 and 1000 mg or placebo consecutive 5-days periods. Transient headaches occurred in 4 subjects on 600 mg dose, 5 on the 1000 mg dose and 1 in placebo. No changes or abnormalities were observed.

Pharmacological Properties

Mechanism of Action

Citicoline acts by various mechanisms as cerebral activator listed below:

Phospholipid Precursor

Evidence of citicoline’s role as a phosphatidylcholine precursor has been found in animal studies. The brain uses choline preferentially for acetylcholine synthesis, which can limit the amount of choline available for phosphatidylcholine production. When the demand for acetylcholine increases or choline stores in the brain are low, phospholipids in the neuronal membrane can be catabolized to supply the needed choline. Exogenous citicoline thus helps preserve the structural and functional integrity of the neuronal membrane. In an in vitro study, citicoline at high concentrations stimulated brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) along with Na+/K+-ATPase. The postulated mechanism involves bioconversion of citicoline to phosphatidylcholine.

Neuronal Membrane Repair

Citicoline has been investigated as a therapy for stroke patients. Three mechanisms are postulated: (1) repair of neuronal membranes via increased synthesis of phosphatidylcholine; (2) repair of damaged cholinergic neurons via potentiation of acetylcholine production; and (3) reduction of free fatty acid buildup at the site of stroke-induced nerve damage. In addition to phosphatidylcholine, citicoline serves as an intermediate in the synthesis of sphingomyelin, another neuronal membrane phospholipid component. Citicoline has shown the potential to restore post-ischemic sphingomyelin levels.

Citicoline also restores levels of cardiolipin, a phospholipid component of the inner mitochondrial membrane. The mechanism for this is unknown, but data suggest citicoline inhibits enzymatic hydrolysis of cardiolipin by phospholipase A2.11 In an animal study, citicoline decreased the formation of hydroxyl radicals following ischemia and perfusion, again suggesting citicoline acts to decrease phospholipase stimulation

Effect on beta-Amyloid

Evidence has surfaced that citicoline counteracts the deposition of beta-amyloid, a neurotoxic protein believed to play a central role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The characteristic lesion in AD is the formation of plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the hippocampus. The degree of cognitive dysfunction and neurodegeneration in AD is proportional to the buildup of beta-amyloid. Citicoline counteracted neuronal degeneration in the rat hippocampus induced by intrahippocampal injection of beta-amyloid protein. The number of apoptotic cells was also reduced. Memory retention as measured by a passive-avoidance learning task improved in the rats.

Effect on Neurotransmitters

Evidence of citicoline’s ability to enhance norepinephrine release in humans was found in a study showing citicoline raised urinary levels of 3-methoxy- 4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), a norepinephrine metabolite. Citicoline increased brain levels of neurotransmitters in rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg, administered daily for seven days. Norepinephrine increased in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus; dopamine increased

in the corpus striatum, and serotonin increased in the cerebral cortex, striatum, and hypothalamus. Rat studies have found evidence that citicoline potentiates dopamine release in the brain, presumably by stimulating release of acetylcholine

Pharmacodynamic Properties

When administered orally, it is absorbed almost completely, and its bioavailability is approximately the same when administered intravenously. Once absorbed, the cytidine and choline disperse widely throughout the body, cross the blood‐brain barrier, and reach the central nervous system (CNS), where they are incorporated into the phospholipids fraction of the cellular membrane and microsomes. The concept that the administration of exogenous Citicoline can augment the synthesis of neural membrane phospholipids is attractive, because accelerated replacement or repair plays a critical role in maintaining the healthy function of numerous physiological processes. It has shown the therapeutic efficacy in a variety of diseases in which membrane disorder, dysfunction, or degeneration result in cellular and tissue ischaemia and necrosis.

Pharmacokinetic Properties

Absorption

Citicoline is a water-soluble compound with greater than 90-percent bioavailability. Pharmacokinetic studies on healthy adults show oral doses of citicoline are rapidly absorbed, with less than one percent excreted in feces. Plasma levels peak in a biphasic manner, at one hour after ingestion followed by a second larger peak at 24 hours post-dosing.

Distribution

Following absorption, choline and cytidine are dispersed throughout the body, enter systemic circulation for utilization in various biosynthetic pathways, and cross the blood-brain barrier for resynthesise into citicoline in the brain

Metabolism

Citicoline is metabolized in the gut wall and liver. The by-products of exogenous citicoline formed by hydrolysis in the intestinal wall are choline and cytidine

Excretion

Pharmacokinetic studies using 14C citicoline show citicoline elimination occurs in two phases mirroring the biphasic plasma peaks, mainly via respiratory CO2 and urinary excretion. The initial peak in plasma concentration is followed by a sharp decline, which then slows over the next 4-10 hours. In the second phase, an initially rapid decline after the 24-hour plasma peak is similarly followed by a slower elimination rate. The elimination half-life is 56 hours for CO2 and 71 hours for urinary excretion.

Nonclinical Properties

Animal Toxicology or Pharmacology

Acute Toxicity

Acute toxicity from single citicoline administration has been studied in various animal species and using different administration routes. The intravenous LD50 in mice, rats, and rabbits is 4.6, 4.15, and 1.95 g/kg, respectively. Oral LD50 is 27.14 g/kg in mice and 18.5 g/kg in rats. The intravenous LD50 of citicoline is approximately 44 times higher than the LD50 of choline hydrochloride at equivalent doses, and it has been shown that choline doses inducing cholinergic crises do not cause any toxicity sign when equivalent doses of citicoline are administered. This suggests that administration of choline has metabolic implications clearly different from those of exogenous choline administration. The administration of 2000 mg/kg of citicoline p.o. during 14 days was well tolerated.

Subacute Toxicity

Intraperitoneal administration to rats of doses up to 2 g/kg/d of citicoline for 4.5 weeks did not results in clinical toxicity signs or significant changes in the haematological, biochemical, or histological parameters analysed. A slight decrease in intake and weight gain was only seen from 2 weeks of the study. Similar results were seen following subcutaneous administration to male rats of up 1 g/kg for 4 weeks. Oral administration of 1.5 g/kg/d to rats for 30 days did not cause weight, haematological, biochemical, or histological changes.

Chronic Toxicity

Chronic oral (1.5 g/kg/d for 6 months in dogs) and intraperitoneal (1 g/kg/d for 12 weeks in rats) toxicity studies did not reveal either significant abnormalities related to drug administration. Intravenous administration of citicoline 300-500 mg/kg/d for 3 months in dogs only caused toxic signs immediately after injection, including vomiting and occasional diarrhoea and sialorrhea. In a 90-day study in rats, 100, 350, and 1000 mg/ kg/day oral doses resulted in no mortality. In males, slight significant increases in serum creatinine (350 and 1000 mg/kg/day) and decreases in urine volume (all treated groups) were observed. In females, slight significant increases in total white blood cell and absolute lymphocyte counts (1000 mg/kg/day), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (100 and 350, but not 1000 mg/kg/day) were noted. A dose-related increase in renal tubular mineralization, without degenerative or inflammatory reaction, was found in females (all treated groups) and two males (1000 mg/kg/day). Renal mineralization in rats (especially females) is influenced by calcium: phosphorus ratios in the diet. A high level of citicoline consumption resulted in increased phosphorus intake in the rats, and likely explains this result.

Teratogenicity

Citicoline was administered to albino rabbits at a dose of 800 mg/kg during the organogenesis phase, i.e. from days 7th to 18th of pregnancy. Animals were killed on day 29, and a detailed examination was made of foetuses and their mothers. No signs of maternal or embryofoetal toxicity were seen. Effects on organogenesis were imperceptible, and only a slight delay in cranial osteogenesis was seen in 10% of treated foetuses.

Description

Citicoline is a complex organic molecule that functions as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of cell membrane phospholipids. Citicoline is also known as CDP-choline and cytidine diphosphate choline (cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine). CDP-choline belongs to the group of biomolecules in living systems known as “nucleotides” that play important roles in cellular metabolism. CDP-choline is composed of ribose, pyrophosphate, cytosine (a nitrogenous base), and choline. Exogenous citicoline research in animal experiments and human clinical trials provides evidence of its cholinergic and neuroprotective actions. As a dietary supplement, citicoline appears useful for improving both the structural integrity and functionality of the neuronal membrane that may assist in membrane repair.

Pharmaceutical Particulars

Incompatibilities

Not applicable

Shelf Life

As on the pack

Packaging Information

COGNOLIN ………blister pack of 10 tablets

Storage and Handling Instructions

Store protected from light and moisture at a temperature not exceeding 25oC

Patient Counselling Information

Read all of this leaflet carefully before you start taking this medicine because it contains important information for you.

  • Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again.
  •  If you have any further questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
  • This medicine has been prescribed for you only. Do not pass it on to others. It may harm them, even if their signs of illness are the same as yours.
  • If you get any side effects, talk to your doctor or pharmacist. This includes any possible side effects not listed in this leaflet.

What COGNOLIN Tablets are and what they are used for?

COGNOLIN tablet contains citicoline. They are indicated for the treatment of patients with serious cerebral injuries of vascular traumatic nature with or without loss of consciousness and for treatment of degenerative changes and chronic cerebral vascular injuries in senile dementia.

What you need to know before you take COGNOLIN Tablets?

Do not take COGNOLIN tablets

  • If you are allergic to citicoline or any of the other ingredients of this medicine
  • If you ever had serious kidney problems
  • If you are hypertonic
  • If you have persistent intracranial haemorrhage

If any of the above applies to you, do not take COGNOLIN Tablets and talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

Warnings and precautions

Talk to your doctor or pharmacist before taking COGNOLIN Tablets

  • if you think your kidneys may not be working perfectly. (Your doctor may need to start you on a lower dose.)

Other medicines and COGNOLIN Tablets

Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking, have recently taken or might take any other medicines.

Tell your doctor if you are taking any of the following medicines:

  • Levodopa
  • Meclofenoxate
  • Centrophenoxine
  • Any other medicine, including medicines obtained without a prescription

Pregnancy and breast-feeding

If you are pregnant or breast-feeding, think you may be pregnant or are planning to have a baby, ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice before taking this medicine. If you are taking COGNOLIN Tablets and you think you may be pregnant, consult your doctor immediately.

Driving and using machines

Do not to operate heavy machinery or automobiles

How to take COGNOLIN tablets?

Always take this medicine exactly as your doctor or pharmacist has told you. Check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure.

Important:

Your doctor will choose the dose that is right for you. Your dose will be shown clearly on the label that your pharmacist puts on your medicine. If it does not, or you are not sure, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

How much to medicine to take and when to take it?

Take this medicine in the dose and duration as advised by your doctor. Swallow it as a whole. Do not chew, crush or break it. COGNOLIN tablet may be taken with or without food, but it is better to take it at a fixed time.

Dosage adjustment is required in those with mild-to-moderate renal impairment and in the elderly population with diminished renal function.

If you take more COGNOLIN Tablets than you should

If you accidentally take too much, immediately go to the nearest hospital casualty department or your doctor.

If you forget to take COGNOLIN Tablets

Do not take a double dose to make up for a forgotten dose. Simply take the next dose as planned.

If you have any further questions on the use of this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

What are the possible side effects of COGNOLIN Tablets?

Like all medicines, this medicine can cause side effects, although not everybody gets them. You may notice the following side effects:

  • Anxiety
  • Leg edema
  • Agitation
  • Constipation
  • Dizziness
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Hematuria
  • Hypotension
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Insomnia
  • Joint pain
  • Depression
  • Auricular Fibrillation
  • ECG abnormality

Reporting of Side-effects

If you experience any side-effects write to drugsafety@cipla.com. You can also report side effects directly via the national pharmacovigilance program of India by calling on 1800 180 3024 or you can report to Cipla Ltd on 18002677779. By reporting side-effects, you can help provide more information on the safety of this product.

How to store COGNOLIN tablets?

 Keep this medicine out of the sight and reach of children. Do not use COGNOLIN Tablets after the expiry date which is stated on the carton after EXP. The expiry date refers to the last day of that month. Do not throw away any medicines via wastewater or household waste. Ask your pharmacist how to throw away medicines you no longer use. These measures will help protect the environment.

Details of Manufacturer

Synokem Pharmaceutical Ltd.

Situated at Plot No 56-57, Sector 6-A, IIE, SIDCUL,

Ranipur, Haridwar – 249403

Marketed by

CIPLA LTD.

Registered office:

Cipla House, Peninsula Business Park, Ganpatrao Kadam Marg,

Lower Parel, Mumbai – 400013, India

Details of Permission or License Number with Date

27/UA/2018

Date of Revision

14/Sep/2020