NutriConnect – Medical Care during Pregnancy

Table of Content

Some Women Experience Health Problems During Pregnancy

  • Hypertension
  • Gestational Diabetes
  • Infections
  • Placental Complications
  • Preterm Labour
  • Miscarriage
  • Ectopic Pregnancy
  • Cholestasis
  • Anaemia

These problems can involve mother's health, baby’s health, or both - making the pregnancy a high-risk pregnancy. Few examples are as follows

Anaemia

Haemoglobin < 10 g/dL

  • Insufficient amount of iron & vitamins to make haemoglobin, more common in 2nd & 3rd trimesters

Nutrition

  • One of the major causes of anemia, out of which iron, folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies are commonest ones

Increased Risk

  • Preterm delivery, fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, postpartum maternal infections, depressed immune status, adverse behaviour and physical growth of baby, etc

High Blood Pressure

  • Can put mother and baby at risk for problems during and after delivery. e.g. placenta complications, preterm delivery, low birth weight, etc.

Pre-eclampsia

  • High blood pressure accompanied with protein in urine

Eclampsia

  • When women with pre-eclampsia develop seizures
  • Some symptoms of preeclampsia - headache, changes in vision, nausea or vomiting, swelling of face or hands, sudden weight gain, trouble breathing, etc

Gestational Diabetes

  • Woman who didn't have diabetes before pregnancy develops it during pregnancy

  • Hormonal changes from pregnancy cause body to either not make enough insulin, or not use it normally glucose builds up in blood, causing diabetes (high blood sugar)

  • Can lead to high blood pressure and having a large infant, which increases risk for cesarean delivery

Cholestasis

  • Liver condition that occurs in late pregnancy

  • Triggers intense itching, but without a rash. Itching usually occurs on the hands and feet but can also affect other parts of the body
  • May temporarily affect the way the body absorbs fat in mothers

  • In babies - May cause preterm birth, lung problems or stillbirth

Infections

  • May occur during pregnancy and/or delivery and may lead to complications for pregnant woman, pregnancy, and baby after delivery

  • Some infections can pass from mother to infant during delivery when the infant passes through the birth canal; other infections can infect a foetus during pregnancy

  • Can be prevented or treated with appropriate pre-pregnancy, prenatal, and postpartum follow-up care, vaccines, and early prenatal testing

Preterm Labour

  • Labour begins before 37 weeks of pregnancy

  • Infant is at an increased risk for health problems, in most cases, because organs such as the lungs and brain finish their development in final weeks before a full-term delivery (39 to 40 weeks)

  • Certain conditions increase risk for preterm labour-infections, short cervix, or previous preterm births, etc.

Miscarriage

  • Pregnancy loss from natural causes before 20 weeks

  • Signs - Vaginal spotting or bleeding, cramping, or fluid or tissue passing from the vagina
  • Bleeding from vagina does not mean that a miscarriage will happen or is happening

Ectopic Pregnancy

  • Developing embryo implants at a site other than the uterine wall embryos generally do not develop normally
  • Most common site - fallopian tubes
  • Ability to diagnose, monitor, and treat ectopic pregnancy reduces the risk of complications

Placental Complications

  • Placenta Previa

Placenta partially or totally covers the mother's cervix

  • Placenta Accreta

Placenta grows too deeply into the uterine wall

  • Placental Abruption

Placenta partly or completely separates from inner wall of uterus before delivery

Alert Signs During Pregnancy

  • Severe headache

  • Dizziness or faintness

  • Leg or calf pain

  • Pain in lower Belly

When to Call Doctor?

  • High fever

  • A fall on stomach

  • Swelling of hands & feet

  • Vaginal bleeding or discharge

  • No movement of the foetus

  • Difficulty breathing with chest pain & blood in cough

  • Excessive nausea & vomiting loose motions

  • Sudden blurring of vision

References

1. https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/factsheets/pregnancy

2. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions

3. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/directory/a-b

4. https://www.webmd.com/baby/default.htm

5.https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases?dFR=Diseases

6. https://www.uptodate.com