Osteoporosis - At a Glance

Table of Content

Osteoporosis

What is a Bone?

Bone

  • Connective tissue
  • 206 bones

Function of Bone

  • Support
  • Protection
  • Assisting in movement
  • Mineral balance
  • Site of blood cell production

Cells of Bone

  • Osteoblasts: Bone forming cells (Good cells)
  • Osteocytes: Provide nutrition
  • Osteoclasts: Bone eating cells (Bad cells)

Osteoporosis - A Silent Killer

Osteoporosis

  • Bone become more porous which makes them weaker and more brittle
Normal Bone

Osteoporotic Bone

Osteoporosis - Your Bones Worst Enemy

Normal bone

Osteoporotic bone

Micro-fracture

Leads to fracture

Bone Formation & Bone Resorption

Normal

Osteoporosis

Decreasing Bone Mass with Age

Male

Female

Women after menopause lose bone mass much faster than men

Burden of Disease- India

Based on 2001 census:

  • 163 million people>50 years
  • Expected to raise to 230 million by 2015
  • 20% women & 15% men i.e. 25 million would be osteoporotic in India by 2015

1 in 2 Indian women above the age of 45 suffer from osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis is also Called...Silent Killer Disease

  • No symptoms until you get a fracture
  • Spine fractures may cause
    • Severe back pain
    • Severely stooped (bent) posture
    • Sometimes decrease in height

Getting Shorter May be Just the Beginning

  • Bone becomes weak - multiple breaks in spine
  • Gradual accumulation of these breaks - people get shorter
  • Could lead to a curved back – “Dowager's Hump”

Common Sites of Fracture

  • Spine
  • Hip
  • Wrist

Fracture Can Turn Your Life into one of Disability

Broken wrists interfere with daily life

Broken hips may cause permanent disability

  • Approx 1  1in 2 regain total independence
  • 1 in 4 need long term hospitalization
  • 1 in 4 people die within 1 year

Risk Factors

Risk Factors- Non Modifiable

  • Family History
  • Past history of Fracture

  • Gender (Female> Male)
  • Age
  • Menopause

Risk Factors- Modifiable

  • Smoking
  • Alcoholism
  • Underweight
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Poor Eating Habits

Diagnosis of Osteoporosis

  • Serum Calcium (8.5-10.4 mg/dl)
  • Bone Mineral Density (BMD)
    • Heel / Wrist
    • DEXA

BMD of Heel (Screening Test)

DEXA (Gold Standard)

Prevention & Treatment

Prevention of Osteoporosis

  • Making a few changes in your diet
  • Calcium
  • Vitamin D
  • Exercise
  • Medication

Deposit Calcium in the Bone Bank

Like the money saved in your bank Account

Calcium & Vit D Requirements

Adults <50

  • 1,000 mg of calcium
  • 400-800 IU of vitamin D 3 daily

Adults >50

  • 1,200 mg of calcium
  • 800-1,000 IU of vitamin D 3 daily.

Life Style Modifications

Eat food Rich in Calcium

  • Milk & Milk products
  • Spinach
  • Oranges
  • Pulses & Sprouts
  • Sardines, salmon

Vitamin D

Natural Sources

  • Exposure to sunlight

Food Sources

  • Oily fish / Fish oils
  • Butter
  • Eggs (yolk)
  • Cereals fortified with vitamin D

Exercise

  • Walking
  • Running
  • Jogging
  • Skipping
  • Aerobics
  • Tennis
  • Weight Training
  • Basket Ball

Today's Treatment Options

What will Happen if You Discontinue the Therapy?

You won't be fit and strong

How Long Do You Need Treatment?

Let the Doctor Decide

Only your doctor can decide which drugs you need and for how long

Where the risk of osteoporosis is high, the treatment is usually lifelong

Conclusion

If you suspect you are at a risk of osteoporosis it is wise to address it RIGHT NOW before a bone fractures

A combination of all these measures can help ensure that the bones preserve their stability until well into old age so that one can explore all of life's paths.......

 

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