Understanding Kidney Stone Disease

Table of Content

Understanding Kidney Stone Disease

Urolithiasis

Urolithiasis is a condition in which one or more stones are formed in the urinary system.

Urinary System

Types of Urinary Stones

  • Stone formation occurs due to increased concentration of certain chemicals like calcium, uric acid, etc. in the urine.
  • Calcium stones are the most common type of stones formed inside the urinary system.

Sites of Urinary Stones

  • Stones can occur anywhere in the urinary system.
  • Commonly stones are formed in the kidney and then passed through the ureters to the bladder.

Symptoms

  • Most common symptom is sharp cramping pain in the back or in the lower abdomen.
  • Nausea and vomiting may occur.
  • Sometimes blood may appear in the urine.
  • Sometimes urinary symptoms like increased frequency of urination or pain and burning sensation during urination may be present.

 

Treatment Options

Extracorpeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (EAWL)

  • This technique is preferred for smaller stones in kidney or ureter.
  • In this, shock waves are focused on stones and they are fragmented.
  • Fragments later on are passed through urine.

Percutaneous Nephrostolithotomy (PCNL)

  • This is preferred for larger kidney stones.
  • Here in, an instrument called nephroscope is passed through skin into the kidney and stone is fragmented.
  • Fragments are then removed through nephroscope and some smaller fragments pass via urine.

Ureteroscopy

  • This technique is preferred for ureteral stones.
  • An instrument called ureteroscope is passed through the urethra and bladder and into the ureter.
  • Small stones are removed and large stones are fragmented. Fragments are then removed through scope and some smaller fragments pass via urine.

 

 

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This poster provides information on the sites and types of urinary stones as well as the different treatment options available for the management of urinary stones in a simple manner.
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