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Lung ultrasound in children with pneumonia: Interoperator agreement on specific thoracic regions

Even when performed by operators with very distinct degrees of experience, LUS had a good interoperator reliability for detecting sonographic patterns on specific thoracic regions.

Emergency or urgent splenectomy in children for non-traumatic reasons

Rarely, an emergency splenectomy is required in complex settings, mostly refractory hematological conditions, in a deteriorating patient when all other measurements have failed. A multidisciplinary team approach is mandatory in the treatment of these complex cases.

New insights in respiratory impedance in young children after repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A cross-sectional study

In children with CDH an impairment of respiratory impedance measured by FOT is observed only in children aged less than 5 years.

Hyponatremia in children under 100 days old: incidence and etiologies

Our findings confirm that hyponatremia is a frequent electrolyte disorder in neonates. Various mechanisms underlie this condition, most of which could be prevented by optimized management. The prevalence of genetic hypoaldosteronism and pseudohypoaldosteronism was higher than expected. We provide a simple diagram to help physicians identify the mechanisms underlying neonatal hyponatremia.

Significance of automated external defibrillator in identifying lethal ventricular arrhythmias

AED reliably identifies the underlying lethal ventricular arrhythmias in addition to aborting SCD. The AED recording of the lethal arrhythmia during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should always be obtained as it plays a crucial role in the decision-making process before ICD implantation. All medical providers should become familiar with downloading cardiac rhythm strips from AED when requested.

A longitudinal study of adolescent dysmenorrhoea into adulthood

These findings are important for counselling adolescents regarding this common presentation. What is Known: • Dysmenorrhoea is the most common gynaecological complaint for adolescents What is New: • Dysmenorrhoea from adolescence resolves in 1 in 4 of young women and no adolescent characteristics predict severe or very severe pain with menstruation in adults. •Only 1 in 5 of women were found to have endometriosis (all mild disease), despite a mean of 10 years of preceding dysmenorrhoea.

Evaluation for Vesicoureteric Reflux Following Febrile Urinary Tract Infections

Shilpa-Urinary tract infections (UTI), among the most common infections in childhood, are important to recognize and treat because pyelonephritis carries a risk of permanent renal injury. Parenchymal scars are observed in 10–15% of patients with first episode of UTI [ 1 ]. Since vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and bladder bowel dysfunction (BBD) are important risk factors for recurrence of UTI, evaluation following an episode of UTI focuses on detecting such ‘at-risk’ patients. Based on the performance and timing of ultrasonography, voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan, two approaches to evaluation are conventionally recognized [ 2 ]. While ultrasonography rules out significant structural malformations and gross pelvicalyceal or ureteric dilatation, it has low sensitivity for VUR. Hence, the ‘bottom-up’ approach, which intends to detect all VUR, relies on performing VCUG, followed by DMSA in those with VUR. In contrast, the ‘top-down’ approach recommends ultraso...

Effects of Exercise Intervention Program on Bone Mineral Accretion in Children and Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Shilpa-Conclusion : Exercise regime was not associated with significant improvement in BMD of CF patients, but it had a positive impact on both physical and psychological health of these patients.

Isotonic versus Hypotonic Intra venous Maintenance Fluids in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Conclusion : The use of either N/2 saline or normal saline in sick children at standard maintenance fluid rates is associated with low but comparable incidence of hypo or hypernatremia in first 24 h of hospitalization. Both types of fluids appear acceptable in hospitalized sick children.